The establishment phase is the critical first step in a productive and healthy forage stand. To maximize your success in establishing a healthy product stand, follow the agronomic guidelines below.
Time of Seeding
Early spring (mid-April to early June), mid-summer (mid-July to early August) and late fall (after freeze-up) are suitable times for seeding your forage stand. Springseeding provides the best chance for adequate moisture levels for germination. Summer seeding provides less weed competition, but may not be successful in areas with inadequate summer moisture. Fall dormant seeding can run risks of early spring run-off or freeze thaw patterns harming seedlings.
A firm seedbed is needed for good forage establishment. This results in proper seed to soil contact, adds control to seeding depth, as well as reducing surface drying. A firm seedbed should not leave a footprint deeper than ¼ inch.
Weed control is important for good forage establishment. A seedbed free of perennial weeds is especially important. Control weeds prior to seeding, as well as during the year of establishment if possible.
Quality Seed and Seed Treatments
Certified seed ensures varietal purity, high germination and weed-free seed. Certified seed results in rapid establishment and reduced weed problems in the future forage crop, as well as subsequent crops. Consider a forage coating to improve flowability and seedling health. All legumes should be inoculated to ensure nitrogen fixation.
Soil test and fertilize accordingly. Remember that the most cost effective time to fertilize a forage crop is usually at seeding. Consider the use of higher rates of elemental sulfur or phosphorus to provide a stable nutrition base for the following years. Fifteen lbs of P2O5 can be safely seed placed. Higher rates must be banded away from the seed row to avoid seedling damage.
Proper depth of seeding can’t be stressed enough. Many forage stand establishment failures are due to seeding too deep. All forage species should be seeded no deeper than ½ inch in depth. Most forage seeds will do well planted at about ¼ inch or less in depth. Always err on seeding shallow rather than deep.
Use the proper seeding rates based on target plants per square foot. Seeding rates depend on seed size, seed quality, seeding method, row spacing and annualprecipitation. Because most forage seeds are small, light and often chaffy, it can be useful to mix the seed with cracked grain, cover crop seed, or fertilizer (except inoculated legumes) to improve seed flow.
Although not recommended, some producers choose to plant forages with cover crops such as barley or oats. Cover (or companion) crops compete with the new forage seedlings for sunlight, nutrients and moisture. A cover crop can cause reduced seedling establishment and forage yield and also reduce stand longevity. The benefits of using cover crops include reduction of wind and water erosion and reduction of weed infiltration. If using a cover crop, the following tips will reduce the competition and aid in forage stand establishment.
Tips for Using Cover Crops
Tip #1 – Seed the cover crop at 1⁄3 to ½ of normal seeding rate. Seed forage seed in a separate pass at an angle to your cover crop to reduce competition and to aid in depth control.
Tip #2 – Increase forage seeding rate to achieve desired plant densities in the stand as the cover crop will reduce forage seed establishment.
Tip #3 – Remove the cover crop as early as possible (silage or green-feed) rather than harvesting the grain. This will reduce the amount of competition for sunlight, moisture and nutrients.
Tip #4 – If harvesting the cover crop for grain (not recommended), remove all straw from the field. If that is not an option, chop and spread the straw thoroughly across the field. If straw is left in a windrow it will smother the forage seedlings underneath.
Tip #5 – If seeding forages where soil erosion is prominent, it is recommended that a cover crop be used. The companion crop will aid in covering and protecting the soil during the establishment year.